Philosophical Investigations

PAST QUESTIONS AS Ethics

 

 

 

Absolute / relative

Utilitarianism

Natural Law

Kant

Religious Ethics

Abortion

Euthanasia

Just War

Right to a child

Genetic eng.

Jan 2010

  1. Explain what is meant by moral absolutism
  2. “Moral absolutism cannot be justified”. Discuss
  1. Explain how utilitarians approach the  issues of war.
  2. “Pacifism does more harm than good” Discuss
  1. Explain the strengths of Natural Law Theory.
  2. To what extent could a follower of natural law accept embryo research.

 

  1. Explain how the ethics of a religion you have studied might be applied to abortion.
  2. “Religious ethics fail to consider consequences”. Discuss

See religious ethics question a.

 

See utilitarianism question a and b.

See Natural law question b.

 

June 2010

  1. Explain the differences between absolute and relative morality.
  2. Relativist theories give no convincing reasons why people should be good”.  Discuss
  1. Explain the main strengths of Mill’s Utilitarianism.
  2. “Utilitarianism can lead to wrong moral decisions”.  Discuss.

 

  1. Explain how the follower of Kantian ethics might approach the issues surrounding the right to a child.
  2. “The right to a child is an absolute right” Discuss.
  1. Explain the ethical principles of a religion you have studied in relation to war.
  2. “War should not be allowed even as a last resort”.  Discuss.

 

 

See religious ethics  question a and b.

See Kantian question part a and b.

 

Jan 2011

  1. Explain how a moral relativist might approach issues raised by abortion.
  2. “A relativist approach to issues raised by abortion leads to wrong moral decisions”.  Discuss.
  1. Explain the difference between Act and Rule Utilitarianism.
  2. To what extent is Utilitarianism a useful method of making decisions about euthanasia?

 

  1. Explain Kant’s argument for using the Categorical Imperative.
  2. “The universalisation of maxims by Kant cannot be defended”. Discuss
  1. Explain how the followers of the ethics of a religion you have studied make ethical decisions.
  2. “Morality and religion are separate”.  Discuss.

See relativism question parts a and b.

See Utilitarianism question part b.

 

 

 

May 2011

 

  1. Explain the Preference Utilitarianism of Peter Singer.
  2. To what extent is Preference Utilitarianism the best form of Utilitarianism?
  1. Explain how the followers of Natural law might approach the issues surrounding abortion.
  2. “Natural Law has no serious weaknesses”. Discuss.
  1. Explain the difference between the hypothetical and Categorical Imperative.
  2. How useful is Kant’s theory when considering embryo research?

See Just War question.

 

 

  1. Explain theories of ethical and religious pacifism.
  2. Assess the claim that killing in war is more justifiable than other types of killing.

 

See Kant question b.

Jan 2012

 

mark scheme

Examiner report

 

  1. Explain the main differences between the Utilitarianism of Bentham and that of Mill.
  2. “The Utilitarianism of Mill is superior in every way to that of Bentham” Discuss.
  1. Explain how Natural law theory can be used to decide the right moral action.
  2. To what extent is Natural law the best approach to ethical decision-making?

 

  1. Explain the main ethical principles of a religion you have studied with regard to genetic engineering.
  2. “Religious ethics prevents progress in genetic engineering”.  Discuss
  1. Explain how the concepts of personhood might influence ethical approaches to abortion.
  2. “The right to life is the most important issue when considering abortion”.  Discuss.

 

 

 

See religious ethics parts a. and b.

May 2012

 

 

 

  1. Explain the difference between deontological and teleological theories.
  2. “The end never justifies the means”.  Discuss.
  1. Explain how the followers of a religion you have studied justify going to war.
  2. “Religious believers should be pacifist”.  Discuss.

 

  1. Explain the moral issues surrounding euthanasia.
  2. ‘Quality of life is the most important factor when considering issues surrounding euthanasia”.  Discuss

See religious ethics question a. and b.

  1. Explain the moral issues surrounding the right to a child.
  2. “A child is a gift not a right”.  Discuss.

 

 

© PhilosophicalInvestigations.co.uk